Asset Builders

An Asset Builder is a bundle of code that Asset Processor runs to generate product assets. Asset Builders can be distributed as Gems and might use third-party libraries to process assets. The Scene Processing Gem, for example, contains the Asset Builders that process .fbx files, and uses the Open Asset Import Library to parse .fbx files.

The Open Asset Import Library supports many scene formats. You can experiment with additional formats by editing o3de/Registry/sceneassetimporter.setreg and adding format extensions to the "SupportedFileTypeExtensions" list.

Anatomy of an Asset Builder

Asset Builders have three core components: a Descriptor for the builder, and handlers for Create Jobs and Process Job requests.


The Descriptor provides Asset Processor the information required to identify the Asset Builder and also declares which source file types the Asset Builder can process. The Descriptor contains the file patterns of the supported source assets, a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), and a version number. Asset Processor uses the Descriptor to filter source assets to the appropriate Asset Builder.

The Asset Builder UUID is also used to create the sub ID for product assets it generates. The sub ID of the product asset must match the current UUID of its Asset Builder. Changing the UUID of an Asset Builder triggers all source assets that have been previously processed by the Asset Builder to be reprocessed.

Create Jobs

Create Jobs generates asset processing jobs for Asset Processor. When Asset Processor detects a new or updated source asset and determines the appropriate Asset Builder to process the source asset, it sends a CreateJobsRequest that contains information about the source asset, including its path, to the Asset Builder. The Asset Builder responds with a CreateJobsResponse that contains JobDescriptor structures, and source and job dependencies. For example, if the CreateJobsRequest is for a material to be processed, the Asset Builder includes a dependency on the referenced shader source asset in the CreateJobsResponse, ensuring the shader is processed before the material.

Create Jobs is a single threaded process. There might be instances where you implement an Asset Builder that does specialized processing for a source asset type that is also supported by other Asset Builders. You might need to examine the source asset to determine if the specialized Asset Builder should process the source asset. In these instances, examining the asset as part of Process Job, and exiting the process early depending on the result, can offer better performance because Process Job is multithreaded.

Process Job

Process Job generates the product asset and product dependencies. The Asset Builder receives a ProcessJobRequest from Asset Processor containing info on the source asset to process. The Asset Builder responds with a ProcessJobResponse. The function of ProcessJobResponse is to process the source asset and return information about the product assets it creates, including sub IDs and product dependencies.

ProcessJobResponse places the product assets in a temp directory. Asset Processor moves the product assets to the Asset Cache and populates the Asset Database and Asset Catalog with information it uses to track the product assets, product dependencies, and the jobs that produced them.

Process Job is multithreaded. Several Asset Builders can run multiple process jobs simultaneously.